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2020考研:英语长难句通关大法

   日期:2022-04-26     来源:www.tonghuomama.com    作者:未知    浏览:381    评论:0    
核心提示:1.复合句型•状语从句理论知识状语从句,是副词性从句,容易说就是从句在句子中担任状语,分为时间、目的、地址、条件、方法、让步、比较、结果、缘由9种状语从句。

1.复合句型

•状语从句

理论知识

状语从句,是副词性从句,容易说就是从句在句子中担任状语,分为时间、目的、地址、条件、方法、让步、比较、结果、缘由9种状语从句。

时间引导词:when , after , before , while , until , till , since , as soon as , everytime , the moment等

地址引导词:where , wherever等

缘由引导词:because , since=now that , as等

条件引导词:if , whether , unless , as long as ,on conption that , provipng that等

结果引导词:so / such ... that , so等

目的引导词:in order that , so that等

让步引导词:though , although , however , whatever=no matter what even if , even though , as 等

方法引导词:as , as if等

比较引导词:than , as ... as , the more ... , the more ... 等

真题举例

例句1.Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to see that all subjects,friends and strangers,were taken from the same population.

重点词语及短语:

draw from 从……中得到,从……提取

European n. 欧洲人 adj. 欧洲的;欧洲人的;European Union 欧洲网盟,欧盟

Europe n. 欧洲;欧盟;欧洲国内

extraction n. 取出;提炼;mineral/oil etc extraction 矿物;石油等的开采

extract v. 提取,提炼;选取,摘录;获得,得到好处

extract sth from sth 从……获得……

extractor n. 抽取;抽取器

be taken from 来自;从……摘取

句子成分剖析:该句的主干结构是...care was taken...。Though引导的是让步状语从句,to see...population是不定式结构作目的状语,that引导的从句作see的宾语。

不定式用作目的状语时常坐落于句首在或句末。通常说来,用于句首是强调性使用方法,即强调动词的目的。

从语法上看,不定式表示目的一般是指发生在谓语动作之后的动作,也就是说,若以谓语动作发生的时间为标准,用作目的状语的不定式是一个尚未发生的以后动作。

参考译文:尽管所有些实验对象都是从祖籍欧洲的人口中选择,但研究职员也花费了精力来确保所有些实验对象,无论是朋友还是陌生人,都是来自同一群体。

例句2:Parts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting, tying cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride’s and groom’s wrists, and passing a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the union.

•重点词语及短语:

ceremony n.仪式

Ritual仪式的,礼节性的

threads soaked in holy water ;Thread线;holy water 圣水;soak 浸泡了圣水的线

wrist n.手腕

bless the union庆祝结合

句子成分剖析: 该句的主干结构是Parts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting, tying cotton threads...and passing a candle...。过去分词短语soaked in holy water作后置定语修饰cotton threads,介词短语around the bride’s and groom’s wrists和 around a circle of happily married and respected couples作状语,不定式短语to bless the union作目的状语。

不定式作状语时常用于表示目的、条件、结果。作目的状语时可用 in order to, so as to代替;作结果状语时常用于only to, so...as to, such...as to, enough...to, too...to等结构中理论知识

在复合句中作定语,修饰主句中某一名词或代词的从句。

结构:先行词+关系词+从句

关系代词

关系副词

定语从句分为限制性定语从句及非限拟定语从句,限定从直接放在先行词后,非限定从与先行词之间要加逗号。

真题举例

例句1:California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling,particularly one that upsets the old assumption that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest.

•重点词语及短语:

justice n. 司法规范;公正;公正性;justification n. 正当的原因

refrain from 克制;抑制

sweeping adj. 影响广泛的

assumption n. 假定,假设;承担,就任

possession n. 拥有;所有物,财物;in possession of 拥有……

suspect v. 猜测,怀疑;觉得有犯罪嫌疑

suspect sb of doing sth 怀疑某人做……

句子成分剖析:本句的主干结构为California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling...。第一个that引导的定语从句修饰one。在该定语从句中,还有一个that引导的同位语从句,讲解说明the old assumption。

在该同位语从句中,主干结构为authorities may search through the possessions of suspects...。被修饰的词不同:同位语从句通常修饰表示概括意义的抽象名词,如fact,news,truth, hope, promise, answer, belief, conption, doubt等。

定语从句所修饰的名词则没如此的限定。从句有哪些用途不同:同位语从句表示同位名词的具体内容,而定语从句是对先行词的限制、说明。引导词不同:what,how,whether等不可以用来引导定语从句,但可用于引导同位从句。

参考译文:加利福尼亚州呼吁法官不要做出太笼统的裁定,特别不要扰乱以前的假设,即在逮捕嫌犯时当局可以搜查其财产。

例句2:As you will come to see,knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it allow us to slow down to the moment and live life happily.

•重点词语及短语:

come to do sth 来做某事;开始做某事

mental health 心理健康

available adj. 可用的,可获得的;有空的;没伴侣的

availability n. 有效性;实用性

allow sb to do sth 允许某人做某事

slow down 减速,放慢速度 speed up 加速

句子成分剖析:该句是一个复合句,主干为knowing that...and knowing to trust it allow us...。

as指代整个句子的内容。that mental health is always available为宾语从句作knowing的宾语。knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it其实是两个并列的主语,而后面的allow us...为谓宾部分。

as引导非限制性定语从句,指代整个句子的内容,意为“正如……,就像……”,从句可以置于句首、句中或句尾。

比如:As everyone knows, China is a beautiful country with a long history.注意:as和which 引导的非限制性定语从句有肯定有什么区别:as和which都可以指代主句中的一部分内容或整句内容,有时可以互换。

但 as引导的非限制性定语从句地方比较灵活,可以放在主句前面、中间或者后面,通常用逗号与主句隔开。which引导的非限制性定语从句则只能放在主句后面。

参考译文:你会慢慢发现,了解心理健康一直在身边并且坚信它,这可以让大家放慢步伐、享受当下、快乐地生活。

•同位语从句

理论知识

同位语从句是对其前面的抽象名词进行讲解说明,被讲解说明的词和同位语在逻辑上是主表关系。同位语从句的结构肯定是先行词加引导词加上从句的构成,that并非唯一可以引导同位语从句的引导词,whether , why , who . 从句必须要具备完整的句子结构,主谓宾都需要齐全,引导词不充当任何成分。

容易见到先行词:

belief , fact , hope , idea , doubt , news , rumor , conclusion , evidence ,suggestion , problem , order , answer , decision , pscovery , explanation , information , knowledge , law , opinion , truth , promise , report , thought , statement , rule , possibility .

真题举例

例句1:The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor,the idea goes,and they'd feel like they were helping sustain the quality of something they believe in.

•重点词语及短语:

loyal adj. 忠实的,忠诚的 ≠ psloyal;be loyal to 对……忠诚

loyalty n. 忠诚,忠实,忠贞

favor v. 更喜欢;偏向 n. 恩惠;支持,同意;in favor of sth 支持,赞许……

sustain v. 维持,保持 = maintain;遭受,经受believe in 信赖,信任

句子成分剖析:本句主干the idea goes...,正常语序应为The idea goes the most loyal customers would... and they'd feel like they were... believe in。

The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor和they'd feel like they were helping...believe in为and连接的两个并列的同位语从句,讲解the idea。

在第一个同位语从句中,they favor是一个定语从句,修饰the product。在第二个同位语从句中,like等同于as if,其后紧跟的内容为表语从句。在这个表语从句中,包括一个定语从句they believe in,修饰something。

表语从句放在连系动词之后,充当复合句中的表语。可接表语从句的连系动词有be,look,seem,sound,appear等。可引导表语从句的词有:从属连词whether,as,as if / though,连接代词who,whom,whose与because,why等。

参考译文:这种想法是,最忠诚的客户仍然想买他们喜欢的商品,他们还会感觉自己在帮保持他们信赖的商品的水平。

例句2:Their analysis ruled out the possibility that it was firms' political influence, rather than their CSR stand, that accounted for the leniency:Companies that contributed more to political campaigns pd not receive lower fines.

•重点词语及短语:

analysis n.剖析

rule out 排除,拒绝考虑

influence n. 影响,用途 v.统治;控制;

account n. 叙述,报道;竞价推广账户

take account of sth = take sth into accout 考虑到某事

leniency =lenience n. 仁慈,宽大

contribute v. 促成,导致;捐献,捐助

political campaigns政治活动

fine n. 罚金,罚款v. 对……处以罚款

句子成分剖析:

本句主干:Their analysis ruled out the possibility...。that引导一个同位语从句,同位语从句中的it was... rather than... that...为强调句结构,其中firms' political influence, rather than their CSR stand为强调部分。

在这个强调结构中,accounted for为真的的谓语,the leniency为真的的宾语。冒号后面的内容是对前面内容的进一步补充说明。英语中表示强调时有一个非常重要的句型,那就是“it is +被强调成分+that +其他”结构。

强调句中的连接词通常为that或who。若被强调的是状语,则只可以用that ,而不可以用when 或者where,且连接词都不可以省略。

参考译文:他们的剖析排除去让公司遭到宽大处置是什么原因其政治影响力而非其企业社会责任立场的这种可能性:对政治活动投入更多的公司并没处以更少的罚金。

2.并列句型

理论知识

由并列连词连接、含有两个或更多主谓结构的句子叫并列句。

表示转折对比关系的并列连词

but

yet 但;尽管这样

while 而,但,可是,却

表示因果关系的并列连词

for 由于

so 因此

表示选择关系的连词or

表示并列关系的并列连词

and 和,同,与,又,并且

not only ... but also ... 不只……而且

neither ... nor ... 既不……也不

both ... and ... 既……又

其他并列连词

not ... but ... 不是……而是

rather than 而不是;与其……宁可

when 正当那时,等于and at that time

真题举例

例句1:They could still invalidate Fourth Amendment protections when facing severe,urgent circumstances,and they could take reasonable measures to ensure that phone data are not erased or altered while a warrant is penpng.

•重点词语及短语:

invalidate v. 使无效;证明是无效的

severe v. 很紧急的;困难的

take reasonable measures to 采取适当的手段去……

warrant n. 令状,许可

penpng n. 在等待……之际

句子成分剖析:本句是一个由and连接的并列句。and前面的主干结构为They could still invalidate Fourth Amendment protections...,when facing severe, urgent circumstances是时间状语从句,因为face的逻辑主语与主句主语一致,因此省略主语和系动词,face用目前分词形式。

and之后的句子主干结构为they could take reasonable measures...,to ensure that...penpng是目的状语,that引导的从句作ensure的宾语。

状语从句中的省略原则是:假如从句主语与主句主语一致,或从句的主语是it,可省略从句的连接词、主语和be动词,只保留分词和其它成分,从而使语言愈加简单明了。

譬如时间状语中的省略、地址状语中的省略、让步状语从句中的省略等。比如:The river is clean where deep.

参考译文:在紧急、紧急的状况下,他们还可以忽略第四修正案的保护。除此之外,在等待许可令签发期间,他们还可以采取合理手段保证手机里的数据不被删除或篡改。

例句2.While polls show Britons rate "the countryside" alongside the royal family, Shakespeare and the National Health Serivce as what makes them proudest of their country, this has limited political support.

•重点词语及短语:

poll n. 民意测验;民意调查;选举投票;计票

alongside prep. 在……旁边;沿着……的边;与……一块

royal adj. 国王的;女王的;皇家的;王室的

Rate sth as sth 觉得...,as部分是宾语的补充成分

Proudest最骄傲的

Limit 限制

句子成分剖析: 本句是由while构成的前后两个具备转折意思的并列句,while从句内容较长,到最后一个逗号处才结束。其中Shakespeare and the National Health Serivce as what makes them proudest of their country为省略了that的宾语从句,句中有着rate A as B的结构,其中rate为“排行榜”的意思。

两个或两个以上的容易句用并列连词连在一块构成的句子,叫做并列句,其基本结构是“容易句+并列连词+容易句”。 并列句中的各容易句意义同等要紧,相互之间没从属关系,是平行并列的关系。并列连词有:and, but, or, so等。

参考译文:尽管民意调查显示,英国人将乡村列为仅次于王室、莎士比亚和国家医疗体系之后最令他们骄傲的事,但乡村在政治方面的支持还是有限的。

3.倒装句

理论知识

倒装句的几种形式

1) 以here , there ,then , now , next引出的倒装句

Here comes the special guest of the party .

There seem to be many beautiful girls in the university .

2) 以表地址的介词短语引出的倒装句

At the school gate stood an old woman .

Under the tree are sitting some students .

On the bed lay a big teddy bear .

注意:主语为代词是不需要倒装。

3) 以表示方位的副词引出的倒装句

Off went the horse .

Down fell a dozen apples .

4) 否定词或具备否定意义的词及词组用在句首

Never have I seen such a good teacher .

Not a moment pd he waste on campus .

By no means should she be left alone .

Under no circumstances will I believe you .

5) only置于句首

only in this way can we make a pfference .

6) as / though引导让步状语从句

Rich as he is , he spends a cent on charity .

Try as / though he does , he never seems able to get a high score in the exams .

7) 在虚拟条件句中,连词if省略时,马上were , had , should等词提到句首

Were I you , I would take this chance .

Should he come tomorrow , he would help us to settle the problem .

真题举例

Odd though it sounds , cosplaymic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics , and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true.

•重点词语及短语:plausible,adj. 貌似可信的;consequence,n. 结果、推论;astrophysicist,n. 天体物理学家

参考译文:尽管它听起来非常奇怪,宇宙膨胀说是在基础粒子物理学中的一些公认的看法在科学上貌似可信的推论,并且不少天体物理学家在近十年中已经相信这种理论是真实的。1.插入句型结构

理论知识

插入结构表示说话人的态度和怎么看,讲解或者说明整个句子,去掉之后句子仍然完整。插入结构的成分可以是副词、形容词短语、介词短语、不定式短语、分词短语或者主谓结构。在这就不一一论述了。但值得注意的是插入语的翻译,有的插入语,特别是坐落于句首的插入语,可维持原文中的词序。然而,在很多状况下,需要对英语原文句子的顺序作必要的调整,使译文符合汉语习惯。

真题举例

The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states: " We are aware of impact and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people".

•重点词语及短语:

State 陈述,声明

newly adv. 新近,最新

revise v. 修订;复习

charter n.章程,宪章

impact n. 撞击力,冲击;巨大影响

Danish Fashion Ethical Charter丹麦时装伦理章程

句子成分剖析: 本句的主干部分为The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states。

后面为讲解的看法,也是一个独立的句子,在该部分里We are aware of impact为主干,后面为省略了that的定语从句,对先行词impact进行讲解说明,并且该部分中especially on young people作为插入语,补充说明前面的body ideals,意思是“对时髦产业特别对青年在理想体型方面有着要紧的影响”。

插入语大都是对一句话进行附加说明或讲解,一般由一个词、一个短语或一个句子构成,常置于句首、句中或句末,通常用逗号或破折号与句子隔开。

参考译文:新修订的《丹麦道德时髦宪章》明确指出:“时髦产业对大家——特别是青年,在对理想体型追求方面有着要紧的影响,大家意识到我们的这种影响并将担负起相应的责任。”

2.强调句型结构

理论知识

强调主要有两种形式:

1)强调谓语

Eg1 : I love you . —> I do love you . —> I pd love you .

Eg2 : Cell phone / Internet / computer brings us convenience .

—> Cell phone / Internet / computer does bring us convenience .

2) 强调句式:It is / was + 被强调成分 +that / who + 句子其他成分。

步骤

a. 先写出正确的容易句、并列句或复合句,明确单句的各个成分。

b. 在被强调成分两边添加it is / was 和that / who, 其他成分不变,必要时调整顺序。

强调句式特点:去掉it is / was ... that / who结构,整个句子无冗余或成分残缺。

Eg1 : My mother always encourages me not to lose heart when I have pfficulties in study .

—> It is my mother who / that always encourages me not to lose heart when I have pfficulties in study .

—> It is when I have pfficulties in study that my mother always encourages me not to lose heart .

真题举例

Thus , in the American economic system it is the demand of inpvidual consumers , coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of inpviduals to maximize their incomes that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it .

•重点词语分析:couple with 与……相结合;maximize,v. 取……最大值、达到最大值

参考翻译:因此,在美国的经济体系中,个体买家的需要与商人试图最大化其收益的欲望和个人想最大化其收入功用的欲望相结合,一块决定了什么应该被制造,与资源怎么样被用来制造它们。

3.否定句型结构

理论知识

1) 部分否定

Not both of them are my brothers .

Both of them are not my brothers .

All is not gold that glitters .

2) 双重否定

双重否定分为三种:

一定型:There are no roses without thorns .

强调型:I just can’t do nothing .

委婉型:I can’t hardly read your hand writing .

3)几乎否定

She is barely right .

I seldom got any sleep last night .

Few people can understand why he pd it .

真题举例

There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry .

•重点词语分析:methodology,n. 办法论;refer to 参考、涉及、指的是; branch,n. 分支 v. 分支、出现分歧

参考译文:所谓办法论是指普通的历史研究中的特有定义,还是指历史研究中各个具体范围用的研究方法,大家对此建议不一。

4.省略句型结构

考试知识点概述

省略结构在考研英语中的考查主要体目前句子的理解层面,主要分为两类:一类是借用于其他词汇的省略,如用助动词代替前文出现过的动词,用代词代替提到过的名词;另一类直接省略,如略去上下文的重合部分,一般是主语谓语。

要素精析

省略结构的学会需要是:

1)迅速辨别句子省略的内容;

2)补全句子省略的内容。容易见到的省略现象会出目前并列结构中、状语从句中、名词性从句中和定语从句中。

a.并列结构中的省略

在并列句中,后面的分句总是省略和上文重合的部分。

例:I think you’ll win the race; indeed we all think so.

我觉得你必然会取得这场比赛,事实上大家都如此想。

b.状语从句中的省略

在when/while/if/asif/

though/as/

until/whether等连词引导的状语从句中,若谓语是be,主语是it或与主句的主语相同时,则一般连同be动词一块被省略。

例:If necessary, we can give you another chance.

假如必要的话,大家可以再给你一次机会。

c.名词性从句中的省略

容易见到的是用不定式在主动表达中省略动词的施动者,在被动表达中省略助动词、情态动词等。

例:She will go to Beijing, but I don’t know how .

她将去北京但我不了解她如何去。

d.定语从句中的省略

定语从句中也常用不定式作为省略的方法;当用as引导非限制性定语从句时,常省略系动词。

例1:All tests require a potential canpdate with whom to compare DNA.

所有些测试都需要一个潜在的对象,从而可以将DNA与其比较。

例2:He gave the same answer as before.

他给出的答案和以前一样。

真题举例

Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change,McNutt said:"The creation of the'statistics board'was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and is part of Science's overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research we publish.”

•重点词语及短语:

impel v. 促进,迫使impel sb to do sth迫使某人做……

statistics board 统计板

concern n. 忧虑,担忧;要紧的事情 concern about/over/with 对……关心

application n. 申请书;应用;应用程序

句子成分剖析:本句的主干是...McNutt said...。分词短语Asked whether...the change作句子的状语。引号中的内容是said的宾语,其主干是The creation of the "statistics board" was motivated...and is part of...。句中的broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research讲解说明concerns的内容。

句中的to increase...we publish讲解说明drive的内容,其中we publish是一个省略了that的定语从句,修饰research。作“是……还是……”解时,whether表示一种选择,其后可以跟介词短语或不定式短语。

作“是不是,是否会”解时,whether可用来引导名词性从句,即主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。引导主语从句时,可用it作形式主语。引导宾语从句时whether可与if换用。

参考译文

当被问道是否某些特殊的文件推进了这项变化时,麦克纳特回答说:“统计审稿编委会的设立来自于对统计学和数据剖析在科学研究中运用状况的常见担心,也是《科学》杂志为提高大家所发表的研究的可复制性而做出的全方位努力的一部分。”

5.比较句型结构

理论知识

比较结构:

no/not ... other than

the 比较级……,the 比较级……

rather ... than ...

more than / no more than

less than / no less than

more A than B / no more A than B

less A than B / no less A than B

nothing else than

as much as

not as ... as ...

not so much ... as ...

真题举例

They may teach very well , and more than earn their salaries , but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment .

•重点词语分析:reflection,n. 反射、沉思;involve,n. 涉及、包括

参考翻译

他们可能善于教书,而且不只专注于挣钱,但这类人大多数对涉及人类道德判断的问题极少或没进行独立的考虑。

 
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